Identification of clean water:
Although it is difficult to identify whether water is safe for consumption by its appearance, there are few physical indicators that can help in identifying that whether the water is drinkable or not. Focusing on following point before consumption of water can help in decreasing the chances of diseases:
• The container holding the water should be visibly clean.
• The container holding the water should always be covered.
• The water should be visibly clear. If the water is brown or yellowish in colour, it should not be consumed.
• The water should be visibly free from particles.
How to purify water inside homes:
If purified water is not accessible, water can be easily purified inside homes utilizing any of the following techniques:
• Boiling water: Boiling the water ensures elimination of bacteria and other contaminants. Water should be boiled for 10 minutes and places in bottles/ containers after cooling.
• Sunlight for water purification: The ultraviolet rays from sunlight can kill pathogens, microorganisms and viruses. Plastic bottles filled with water should be kept in sunlight for approximately 6 hours for disinfection before consumption.
• Sand filter: This is an effective and traditional method where in a crock layers of sand are added and a small whole is made at the bottom. The sand captures granules and suspended particles and free of contamination water is collected in a utensil.
• Chlorination: Chlorine is widely available as powder as well as tablets. Addition of 1 teaspoon of chlorine in 10 liter of water or 1 tablet in a crock will make the water free of microbial contamination after 30 minutes.
• Lemon Juice/ Citric Acid: Adding one teaspoon of lemon juice/ citric acid in 1 liter of water makes it safe for consumption.
More information can be assessed at: Purification of water at home